11-27-2018, 02:02 PM #1
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Peptides - Steroids - The POSITIVE versus NEGATIVE
Peptides - Steroids - The POSITIVE versus NEGATIVE
Steroids are the synthetic drugs just like the natural hormones produced in the body. AAS (Anabolic Androgenic Steroids) is the type of steroids, which copy the effect of male hormones and testosterone; AAS are used by people to build muscles and to increase strength. AAS are different to cortico-steroids which are medically used to treat asthma. There are more than one meaning of steroid. There is a medicine named “steroid” which people take to reel asthma and skin problems. Steroids help to reduce the stress and increase the growth of body.
Do you know there are some illegal anabolic steroids? Yes, these are the artificially produced hormones like androgens (Male-type sex hormones in the body). Anabolic Steroids are in the form of pills, injections or powders. As Anabolic Steroids are illegal, so you can be arrested while buying, selling, or taking it.
Anabolic Steroids are used by athletes to increase their muscle strength and mass. These are also used by the girls to become stronger. Anabolic Steroids are not just used by professional athletes but also by the college athletes, teens and by other people.
Supplements are also available which contain anabolic steroids. They are promoted by the ads and through magazines. Legal and illegal supplements cause health problems. Some are banned in the United States, but some are legal till now. Children’s should not take steroid supplements either they are present in the market because they are injurious for health.
1) Functions of Steroids:
There are two varieties of steroids developed for medical treatments. One is Anabolic Steroids which you hear most and as we also discussed them. They behave like male sex hormones and medically they are used for the treatment of problems like late puberty and muscles loss in patients suffering from cancer and AIDS.
Another type is called as Corticosteroid which is considering to be less provocative. Although they are used for building muscles yet, they used for the cure of allergic reactions and autoimmune diseases. For autoimmune diseases, especially Prednisone is suggested for treating lupus and arthritis. (it is a famous type of Corticosteroid).
Anabolic Steroids and Corticosteroids both can be injected muscularly, they can be either taken orally or by scrubbing on the body. They are also used in the muscle’s growth. According to research various kinds of anabolic steroids have been introduced. Our muscles become hard due to work out because of the creation of micro-tears in muscles fibers. Muscles will restart growing and with the repetition of this process, they ultimately become hard and colossal. In this regard, the anabolic steroid works best as they enhance the pace of muscle healing by preventing the breakdown of muscle tissues. It is preferable for the use of athletes.
2) Types of steroids:
Commonly known anabolic steroids:
- Deca-Durabolin ("deca" for short)
- Equipoise ("Eq" for short)
- Dianabol ("Dbol" for short)
Let’s discuss a few major types:
Dianabol (DBol) is hormone/organic compound used to increase the ability and working power of the human body. It is widely used for bodybuilding and said the basic of the bodybuilding’s Arnold Schwarzenegger time. Dbol is taken orally and it is very poisonous/toxic for liver.
Trenbolone Acetate is considered as the best hormone that a person can take either in beginning or at any time. It is super diverse. Tren was made as a veterinary supplement used to increase the size of animals. It was created as a hypodermic engraft which was entered the cows.
Anavar, an oral organic compound used by men and women. It is a modest steroid and di-hydro testosterone is obtained, frequently prescribed by doctors for gaining weight. Anavar is a constructive metabolism rating 3–6x higher than normal testosterone. Anavar is used as an “initial” steroid because of fewer side effects and want of strong androgenic effects.
Deca Durabolin is derivative of Nandrolone. A basic steroid which is used as off-season mass gainer. It is less harmful than testosterone. The reason for Deca popularity is bulking steroid and its minimal side effects.
3) PROs of steroids:
Steroids said as performance-enhancing drugs used to enhance natural body performance. Artificial steroids can be used for the growth of reproductive organs bones, body, hair, and muscles, proved by a research.
Testosterones steroids used to improve the stamina for physical activities of athletes or fitness enthusiasts.
Organic compounds are used to increase body weight and change shape, so it is widely used by sportsmen to shape their body.
Steroids are used by athletes to cure their minor injuries or accidents because it has remedial effects.
4) Cons of steroids:
Any invention has side effects and risk involvement, so steroids also have side effects. These steroids boost the performance than normal capacity.
If a person uses steroids on daily basis then he became an addict of those because the chemical effects on his body, the steroids boost the working ability of body than natural capacity, so the person prefers to go for steroids further because he became used to with those organic compounds.
The human body stops producing natural hormones or it produces fewer hormones as compare to previous hormones when chemical hormones are uses too much so over usage of organic compound cause infertility.
Steroids affect other body functions along the purpose of their usage, they cause high cholesterol level which increases the risk of heart diseases, high blood pressure and over-weight.
If a regular user of steroids wants to get rid of steroids and he stops using it suddenly then the person may be felling lazy, weak, depression, nausea, nervous break-down or body pains. Therefore, the body natural way of performance had been changed by a steroid.
5) What are Peptides?
Peptides are basically protein in nature. They are compiled of two or more amino acids which are linked together to form an amide. This linkage is covalent in nature and formed between an amino acid (via a carboxyl group) and another amino acid (through nitrogen ending). The basic difference between protein and peptides lies in the altering number of amino acids. When two amino acids are covalently bonded they will form dipeptides. Many multi proteins bond together they will be called as Polypeptide which contains 10-50 amino acids residues are commonly known as peptides. The protein number can go up to 50.
Most of the time synthetic peptides are seen in form of pharmaceutical products that includes some famous hormones as well as such as steroids, calcitonin, oxytocin and adrenocorticotropic hormone. Based on various application and needs the peptide has incurred various forms. Similarly, in different branches of biology, they are learning for different purposes. Such as in cell biology, when they bind on the base of receptor they develop a new form commonly called as enzymes. Now these natural forms can now be replacing with synthetic ones. For instance, the drugs used for treating cancer. Some other uses of synthetic peptides have also come forward like they are used as reagents and standards in mass spectrometry (MS)-based applications. They play vital role in terms of quantitation and characterization of proteins as well as biomarkers in many diseases. As far as the synthesis of peptides is concerned they are major of two ways of formation, solid-phase Fmoc peptide synthesis (SPPS) and liquid-phase peptide synthesis.
6) Peptide bond
It is chemical bond which formed when two molecules bind together in a way that the amino group of one molecule react with carboxyl group of one molecule reacts and as a result it releases one molecule of water (H2O). due to the release of the water molecule, this reaction is called a condensation reaction or dehydration synthesis reaction. The bond of carboxyl group and amino group together makes a bond which is called as a peptide bond and the consequential molecule is called as an amide.
7) Types of peptides
In this article we will briefly discuss few types of the peptides which are given as below:
It formed because of reaction between two amino acids forming one peptide bond. For example; Anserine (β-alanyl-N-methylhistidine) and Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine).
This compound will form because of reaction between 3 molecules of amino acids and as a result they will form 2 peptide bonds. For examples; Ophthalmic acid (L-γ-Glutamyl-α-L-amino butyrl-glycine) and Glutathione (Glutamyl-cystinyl-glycine).
When amino acids in a range of 2-20 are chemically bonded through the peptide bond, as a result, the Oligopeptides will form. For example; Amanitin (Decapeptide) and Tetrapeptide; Tulfsin (threonine-lysine-proline-Arginine).
When more than 20 amino acids are linked by peptide bond, the polypeptides will form. For example, Growth hormone and insulin.
8) Functions of peptides:
Following are the functions of peptide in a human body:
- Structural Functions
In a human body the main structure is formed of protein. Such as they compose the external membrane of every cell in body, together they made human hair, skin, muscles, organs and even tissues.
- Driving Biochemical Reactions
The basic items that runs the biochemical reactions in a human body are enzymes. And enzymes are protein in nature. Enzymes act as a pacemaker in chemical reactions occurring in the human body. The most common examples are chemical reaction in nervous system, breathing and digestion. Specially in terms of metabolism, where series of biochemical reactions are being done to convert food into energy.
- Hormonal Regulation
Hormones are the vital parts of human body which are also made up of peptides. If a human body lack the proper number of peptides in hormones it can even lead to severe cases such as puberty. They can even badly affect the other process such as production of sperm, menstrual cycle and fertility in females. Other than this they are the determinants of aging process, metabolism, regulate muscle mass, regulate moods and hair growth
- Regulation of Cell Division
Cell division either mitosis or meiosis, none can run with the peptides/protein deficiency. They replace the replenished cells and form new ones. There can be different cause to cell damage such as exposure to sun, chemical and pollution. When a cell dies, the healthy one divides into two along with regulation through peptides. Upon lack of protein leads to failure of cell growth ultimately causing tumor growth and cancer.
- Immune System Actions
Antibodies are all and all made up of peptide structure. They are highly important for maintaining the health and keeping the immune system strong. Antibodies fight against virus and bacteria. Although the basic structure of peptide in antibody may differ yet the presence of peptides is ensured. Antibody play a communicative role, after detecting the invading germ the keep the immune system alert and helps to destroy the invader.
9) Pros of peptides:
Let’s discuss few general advantages f peptides:
- Copies of synthetic peptide can be made easily for the human to fight against disease like cancer.
- It has less percentage of toxicity as it lacks external proteins and nucleic acid.
- Used in various anti-ageing creams.
- Best in use for anti-microbial treatments.
- Basic component that form the new skin at the place of disrupted one.
- Helps to perform several essential body functions such as enzymes to speed up reactions, antibodiesfor immune system, upon breakage produce water molecule in body, hormones control the various functions even including sexual development in both males and females. All these functions are not possible without peptides.
- Alike nature peptides in a human body, science has reached to levels where it can even synthesize the peptides in form or drugs as well as use them in various diagnostic tool.
10) Cons of peptides:
Let’s discuss few disadvantages of the peptides as well:
- As it is being a part of various types of cells such as T cell epitopes, so in their absence, they will adversely affect the system of elicit cell-mediated immunity (CMI).
- It is assumed that the peptides may be less immunogenic as compare to conventional as it causes inactivation of whole-virus vaccines.
- It will require adjuvant which means, a substance that a body require to enhance immune system.