Anabolic Androgenic Steroids

Top Drugs on WADA Watchlist Athletes Must Look Out For in 2022

              In a bid to promote the integrity of sports, the World Ant-Doping Agency (WADA) has prohibited the manufacture, supply, and use certain substances. These substances have been found to boost an athlete’s performance beyond their natural capabilities, thus disadvantaging other athletes who are not using the substances. Most of these drugs are hormone boosters and are readily available in the streets where the public can have access at affordable prices. The crackdown on illegal substances has driven most of its manufacturers out of the market by revoking their licenses or prosecution. However, some manufacturers and suppliers have found a way of beating the system and continue to produce and supply the substances under clandestine programs. Moreover, athletes are the biggest victims of their shady operations since doping does not only ruin careers but also interferes with the athletes’ health long-term.

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          Regulatory bodies such as WADA have categorized prohibited substances using certain criteria such as chemical composition and severity of their effects. Additionally, there are prohibited methods WADA has outlined for athletes to avoid at all costs. Without further delay, here is the updated list of prohibited substances and methods as outlined on WADA’s official website.

Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS)

  • Boldenone
  • Drastanolone
  • Epitestosterone
  • 7-Keto DHEA
  • Androstenediol
  • Gestrinone
  • Fluoxymesterone
  • 19-Norandrostenediol
  • Epiandrosterone
  • Desoxymethyltestosterone
  • Calusterone
  • 7a-hydroxy-DHEA
  • 1-Testosterone
  • Androstanolone
  • Androstenedione
  • Dehydrochlormethyltestosterone
  • Ethylestrenol
  • Formebolone
  • Furazbol
  • Bolasterone
  • Mestanolone
  • Epi-dihydrotestosterone
  • Drostanolone
  • Clostebol
  • 4-hydrotestosterone
  • Danazol

Anabolic Agents

  • Quinbolone
  • Oxabolone
  • Stenbolone
  • Trenbolone
  • Tibolone
  • Mibolerone
  • Norboletone
  • Nandrolone
  • Metribolone
  • Mesterolone
  • Metenelone
  • Methylchlostebol
  • Methyldienelone
  • Tetrahydrogestrinone
  • Testosterone
  • Stanozolol
  • Oxandrolone
  • Oxymestronone
  • Metribolone
  • Methandriol
  • Methylchostebol
  • Metandienone
  • Norclostebol
  • Norethandrolone
  • Prasterone
  • Oxymetholone
  • Clenbuterol
  • Zeranol
  • Zilpaterol

Peptides Hormones

  • Transforming growth factor beta signaling inhibitors such as sotatercept
  • Innate repair receptor agonists such as EPO and CEPO
  • Erythropoietin receptor agonists such as EPO and Depo.
  • GITA inhibitors
  • Hypoxia-Inducible factor activating agents such as cobalt and vaadaadugstat.
  • Growth hormone releasing factors such as GHRH, GHS, GHRPs, Examorelin, among others.

Growth Factors and Modulators

  • Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs)
  • Platelet-derived growth hormone (PDGF)
  • Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1)
  • Thymosin and its derivatives
  • Heptocyte growth factor (HGF)
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)
  • Mechano growth factor (MGF)

Beta-2 Agonists

  • Vilanterol
  • Terbutaline
  • Fenoterol
  • Salbutamol
  • Arformoterol
  • Formoterol
  • Tulobuterol
  • Reproterol
  • Fenoterol
  • Higenamine
  • Indacaterol
  • Salmeterol
  • Tretoquinol
  • Levosalbutamol
  • Olodaterol
  • Procaterol

Note: There are exceptions to the use of Beta-2 agonist. For instance, inhaled salbutamol should not exceed 600 micrograms over eight hours starting from any dose. Additionally, inhaled formoterol, salmeterol, and vilanterol must not exceed 54, 200, and 25 micrograms respectively over 24 hours.

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Hormone and Metabolic Modulators

  • Testolactone
  • Letrozole
  • Exemestane
  • Androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione
  • 2-androstenol
  • 2-androstenone
  • Anastrozole
  • Formestane
  • Aminoglutethimide
  • 4-androstene-3,6,17-trione
  • Cyclofenil
  • Raloxifene
  • Ospemifene
  • Tamoxifen
  • Clomifene
  • Bazedoxifene
  • Fulvestrant
  • Activin A-neutralizing antibodies
  • Activin receptor IIB competitors
  • Myostatin inhibitors such as myostatin binding proteins and antibodies
  • Activators of the AMP-activated protein kinase
  • Insulin and insulin-mimetics
  • Trimetazidine
  • Meldonium

Diuretic and Masking Agents

  • Plasma expanders
  • Desmopressin
  • Probenecid
  • Amiloride
  • Canrenone
  • Bumetanide
  • Acetazolamide
  • Chlortalidone
  • Etacrynic acid
  • Thiazides
  • Indapamide
  • Metolazone

Prohibited Methods

               WADA prohibits the manipulation of blood and blood components. This includes the addition of foreign red blood cells to the blood circulating in the body. It also prohibits athletes from introducing any form or quantity of homologous, autologous, and heterologous blood in their bodies. Athletes are not allowed to boost oxygen delivery to certain parts of the body by artificially altering oxygen uptake and transportation. This is usually done by introducing modified haemoglobin products and other perfluorochemicals. However, they’re allowed to boost oxygen uptake though inhalation. Finally, the regulatory body does not condone any form of intravascular manipulation of the blood and its components through chemical or physical means.

              WADA collects samples from suspected cases regularly for analysis. In that case, athletes are prohibited from tampering with or manipulating the samples collected for purposes of analysis. The control body has cited sample substitution and adulteration as the most common tampering methods their officers face. Athletes can use specific chemicals for medical and other purposes other than performance enhancement. However, it forbids intravenous infusions or injections of less than 12 hours for does above 12 ml.

             Gene and cell doping are another malpractice among athletes that has drawn the attention of the sports watchdog. It has been found that some participants are using nucleic acid or its analogues to alter genome sequences, thus giving them added advantage when competing. They’re advised to restrain themselves from engaging in gene editing, transfer, and silencing because it will inevitably put them on the wrong side of the law.

Prohibited Stimulants

  • Prolintane
  • Furfenorex
  • Fencamine
  • Adrafinil
  • Modafinil
  • Norfenfluramine
  • Fenetylline
  • Crotetamide
  • Fenproporex
  • Cocaine
  • P-methylamfetamine
  • Mesocarb
  • Bromantan
  • Amfetamine
  • Prenylamine
  • Clobenzorex
  • Lisdexamfetamine
  • Cropropamide
  • Fenfluramine
  • Mephentermine
  • Phendimetrazine
  • Amiphenazole
  • Fonturacetam
  • Benzylpiperazine
  • Octapamine
  • Selegiline
  • Cathine
  • Ephedrine
  • Etamivan
  • Strychnine
  • Etilefrine
  • Pemoline
  • Cathinone
  • Meclofenoxate
  • Etilamfetamine
  • Isometheptene
  • Sibutramine
  • Methylphedrine
  • Fenbutrazate
  • Pentetrazol
  • Tuaminoheptane
  • Nikethamide
  • Oxilofrine
  • 5-methylhexan-2-amine
  • 3-methylhezan-2-amine
  • 4-fluoromethylphenidate
  • 4-methylpentan-2-amine
  • Phenethylamine
  • Epinephrine
  • Methylnedioxymethamphet-amine
  • Phenpromethamine
  • Pseudoephedrine
  • Propylhexedrine

Narcotics

  • Pethidine
  • Oxycodone
  • Methadone
  • Morphine
  • Diamorphine
  • Buprenorphine
  • Fentanyl
  • Pentacocine
  • Hydromorphone
  • Nicomoprphine
  • Dextromoramide

Cannabinoids

            WADA has made it clear that it prohibits the use of all cannabinoids by athletes, whether they’re synthetic or natural. That includes all substances contained in cannabis and its products. Additionally, products that contain some levels of THC or those that mimic it are prohibited in totality. Cannabidiol is the only cannabis-related substance that has not been banned by WADA.

Glucocorticoids

  • Fluocortolone
  • Mometasone
  • Prednisone
  • Cortisone
  • Hydrocortisone
  • Triamcinolone
  • Prednisolone
  • Deflazacort
  • Circlesonide
  • Budesonide
  • Flunisolide
  • Methylprednisolone
  • Fluticasone
  • Betamethasone
  • Dexamethasone
  • Triamcinolone acetonide

Beta Blockers

  • Bunolol
  • Labetalol.
  • Nadolol.
  • Timolol.
  • Oxprenolol.
  • Sotalol.
  • Esmolol.
  • Bisoprolol.
  • Pindolol.
  • Propranolol.
  • Betaxodol.
  • Acebutolol.
  • Atenolol.
  • Carvedilol.
  • Metipranolol.
  • Celiprolol.
  • Carteolol.
  • Nebivolol.
  • Alprenolol.

Overall

           From the WADA list of prohibited substances and methods above, it is evident that most drugs we use every day are mentioned. However, it is important to note that not all the drugs mentioned are harmful to your body. For instance, cannabis and its products are mentioned but we use it every day for medical and recreational purposes. WADA is only trying to create a level playing field for all athletes. That way, every win will be deserved and a lose may not be contested by participants who feel cheated. Similarly, some substances are detrimental to your health and must be avoided at all costs, whether you’re a competitive athlete or not.

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